Humdrum Representation Reference

Documentation Style

This section of the Reference Manual describes various pre-defined representations conforming to the Humdrum syntax. Each representation defines a scheme by which the numbers, letters, and other characters of the ASCII character-set are mapped to musically pertinent signs or "signifieds." Each representation is designated by a different Humdrum exclusive interpretation. Exclusive interpretations are denoted by two leading asterisk characters (beginning in the first column of a line or record) followed immediately by an interpretation keyword. For any given spine (column of data), only one exclusive interpretation can be active at a given moment, and an interpretation must precede the first data record.

Each documented representation includes a description of the scope of the representation, a complete tabulation of all pre-defined signifiers, and examples of syntactically-correct representations. For many representations, a number of tandem interpretations are also pre-defined. Tandem interpretations provide additional contextual information concerning the represented data. In addition, each entry lists all of the existing Humdrum commands that are able to process the representation. Descriptions of the various Humdrum commands are also available on-line.

All Humdrum representations can be processed by the general-purpose tools list in the following table.

assemblepaste together Humdrum files
censusdetermine general properties of a Humdrum file
cleavejoin tokens from two or more spines into a single spine
contextcongeal data records to form a contextual frame
correlmeasure the numerical similarity between two spines
dittoreplace null tokens with previous non-null data token
encodeinteractive Humdrum encoding from MIDI input
extractselect input spines for output
fieldstrace changes in spine structure
humdrumtest conformance to Humdrum syntax
humsedstream editor for Humdrum files
infotcalculate information flow
numnumber selected records according to user-defined criteria
pattlocate and output user-defined patterns in a Humdrum input
patternexhaustively locate user-defined patterns in a Humdrum input
recoderecode numeric tokens in selected Humdrum spines
rendsplit tokens in a single spine into two or more spines
rideliminate specified record types from the input
scramblerandomize order of either Humdrum data records or data tokens
similmeasure the similarity between two Humdrum spines
stropheselectively extract strophic data
thruexpand repeats to through-composed form
xdeltacalculate numeric differences for successive tokens within a spine
yankextract passages from a Humdrum input
ydeltacalculate numeric differences for concurrent spines

Each reference entry contains information identifying the name and purpose of the representation, a summary description of mappings between signifiers and signifieds, the designated file-type, and a list of Humdrum commands that accept or produce the given representation as input or output. The standard order of documentation sections is as follows: (1) representation, (2) description, (3) file type designation, (4) signifiers used, (5) examples, (6) pertinent commands, (7) tandem interpretations, (8) see also, (9) warnings, (10) limits, (11) note, (12) reference, (13) proposed modifications, and (14) author(s).