This section of the Reference Manual describes various pre-defined representations conforming to the Humdrum syntax. Each representation defines a scheme by which the numbers, letters, and other characters of the ASCII character-set are mapped to musically pertinent signs or "signifieds." Each representation is designated by a different Humdrum exclusive interpretation. Exclusive interpretations are denoted by two leading asterisk characters (beginning in the first column of a line or record) followed immediately by an interpretation keyword. For any given spine (column of data), only one exclusive interpretation can be active at a given moment, and an interpretation must precede the first data record.
Each documented representation includes a description of the scope of the representation, a complete tabulation of all pre-defined signifiers, and examples of syntactically-correct representations. For many representations, a number of tandem interpretations are also pre-defined. Tandem interpretations provide additional contextual information concerning the represented data. In addition, each entry lists all of the existing Humdrum commands that are able to process the representation. Descriptions of the various Humdrum commands are also available on-line.
All Humdrum representations can be processed by the general-purpose tools list in the following table.
assemble paste together Humdrum files census determine general properties of a Humdrum file cleave join tokens from two or more spines into a single spine context congeal data records to form a contextual frame correl measure the numerical similarity between two spines ditto replace null tokens with previous non-null data token encode interactive Humdrum encoding from MIDI input extract select input spines for output fields trace changes in spine structure humdrum test conformance to Humdrum syntax humsed stream editor for Humdrum files infot calculate information flow num number selected records according to user-defined criteria patt locate and output user-defined patterns in a Humdrum input pattern exhaustively locate user-defined patterns in a Humdrum input recode recode numeric tokens in selected Humdrum spines rend split tokens in a single spine into two or more spines rid eliminate specified record types from the input scramble randomize order of either Humdrum data records or data tokens simil measure the similarity between two Humdrum spines strophe selectively extract strophic data thru expand repeats to through-composed form xdelta calculate numeric differences for successive tokens within a spine yank extract passages from a Humdrum input ydelta calculate numeric differences for concurrent spines
Each reference entry contains information identifying the name and purpose of the representation, a summary description of mappings between signifiers and signifieds, the designated file-type, and a list of Humdrum commands that accept or produce the given representation as input or output. The standard order of documentation sections is as follows: (1) representation, (2) description, (3) file type designation, (4) signifiers used, (5) examples, (6) pertinent commands, (7) tandem interpretations, (8) see also, (9) warnings, (10) limits, (11) note, (12) reference, (13) proposed modifications, and (14) author(s).